Tuesday, April 6, 2021

History of Metabolic syndrome

The “metabolic syndrome” is a clustering of components that reflect overnutrition, sedentary lifestyles, and resultant excess adiposity.

Metabolic syndrome started as a concept rather than a diagnosis. The metabolic syndrome has its origins in 1920 when Kylin, a Swedish physician, documented a connection of high blood pressure (hypertension), high blood glucose (hyperglycemia), and gout.

Later in 1947, French physician Jean Vague described that the visceral obesity was commonly associated with the metabolic abnormalities found in CVD and T2DM. He 0bserved, that upper body obesity seems to predispose diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout and calculi.

Following this, in 1965, an abstract was presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes annual meeting by Avogaro and Crepaldi and colleagues which again described a syndrome which comprised hypertension, hyperglycemia, and obesity.

In 1980, the seminal work of Margaret Albrink focused on the relationship between obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.

The field moved forward significantly following the 1988 Banting Lecture given by Reaven. He coined the term “Syndrome X” to describe the proposed interrelationships between resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, hypertension, T2D, and CVD.

In 1989, Kaplan renamed the syndrome “The Deadly Quartet” for the combination of upper body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension and however, in 1992, it was again renamed “The Insulin Resistance Syndrome.

The term “metabolic syndrome” was used in 1977 by Herman Haller who was studying the risk factors associated with atherosclerosis.

In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of metabolic syndrome. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of metabolic syndrome were proposed.

In 2005, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Examination Committee for Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Japan issued different criteria of metabolic syndrome where abdominal obesity is a necessary component.
History of Metabolic syndrome

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